The composition of our planet consists of three physical elements: one solid, the lithosphere, another liquid, the hydrosphere, and gaseous, the atmosphere.

Pangaea... (from Ancient Greek pān "whole" and gaia "Earth", "land", so literally "whole earth"),
was the last global supercontinent of Earth's history.

According to the ancient Greeks the earth is composed of four things; earth, air, fire and water. Since then science's advances now catalogue the earth's 90 some elements according to their atomic weight. All matter, substance, everything is made up entirely of atoms which are the building blocks of matter. Whether something is solid, liquid or gas depends merely on how closely the atoms are packed.


The Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth

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The atmosphere is divided into five layers. It is thickest near the surface and thins out with height until it eventually merges with space.

Very high up, the Earth's Atmosphere becomes very thin. The region where
Atoms and Molecules escape into space is referred to as the Exosphere. The Exosphere is on top of the Thermosphere.

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Ionosphere (Thermosphere)
The Ionosphere (thermosphere) is by far the largest part of the atmosphere. Its height ranges 80-480 km. In this layer, short-wave radiations coming from space upload air
molecules. Through this process, heat is generated. Thereby the temperature in the thermosphere can take up to 1000° C.

The Ionosphere contains many ions and free electrons (plasma). The ions are created when sunlight hits atoms and tears off some electrons. The ionosphere is located between the mesosphere and the exosphere (and is part of the thermosphere). Auroras occur in the Ionosphere.

Infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation that we can feel as heat.

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Meteors or rock fragments burn up in the mesosphere.


Many weather ballons fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable. Commercial jet aircraft fly in the lower stratosphere to avoid the turbulence which is common in the troposphere below.

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In the lower part of the stratosphere is the ozone layer. It is a small but important shield of high content of ozone gas (O3).


Ozone Layer
In the troposphere, the ground-level or "bad" ozone is an air pollutant that damages human health, vegetation, and many common materials. It is a key ingredient of urban smog. In the stratosphere, we find the "good" ozone that protects life on earth from the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet rays.

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It is said, that the troposphere is the first layer above the surface. It is the atmospheric layer that causes more problems for astronomers, because it can prevent a good observation of the stars. Weather occurs in this layer.

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Earth Plates/Tectonic Plates
These are the earth plates on planet earth. They move because of a liquid mase (mantle) below them

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The earth plates move in different directions

Because of the movement it can occur, that the plates rub each other and therefore produce huge waves

Along the tsunamis, the earth plates can also generate earthquakes on land

Earth's magnetic field

The Magnetic Field occurs because of the North Pole and the South Pole.

The North Pole attracts the South Pole, North-North and South-South in contrast reject each other.

hollow earth

The word 'Agharta' is of Buddhist origin. It refers to the subterranean world or empire in whose existence all true Buddhists fervently believe.

In 1938/1939 a 'German' Expedition was made to the

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